The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) performance was improved by appearance of selenium oxides., in which a statistical distribution and an ordered positioning were concluded.
Subsequently, Behm found the selenium played a role in surface modification of ruthenium and increased the catalytic stability of ruthenium supported on carbon, so they called the cluster catalysts as selenium-modified ruthenium catalysts .
In recent years, the preparation of carbon supported ruthenium catalysts has attracted scientific attention due to the potential application the catalysts as a cathode catalyst in direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) ,  and .
It was shown that the presence of selenium was the decisive factor to significantly improve the catalytic activity and stability compared to unmodified ruthenium nanoparticles.
A special selenization in the course of a one-step synthesizing technique resulted in the high ORR activity of the catalysts .
However, the catalytic activity was still unsatisfied for commercial application in DMFCs due to undesired catalyst particle aggregation and a shell of amorphous Se-containing byproducts.
We’re here this morning with the West Coast Wednesday Mix from DJ E-Man + You know we got J Cruz and the Cruz Show Team here in our Power 106 studio bringing you those SOLD OUT tickets to see “The Weeknd” for the “The Madness Fall Tour 2015” in the front row & $100 CRUZ CA$H! Make sure you hit us up on Instagram: CRUZSHOW106 or our Twitter: THECRUZSHOW!!
We’re giving them out every hour all morning + that also qualifies you to win more cash of $10,000! Start your morning off right #ichoosecruz listeners by spending it driving and listening to the Cruz Show! Then there’s Krystal Bee giving out all those updates in our “Cruz News” and Cruz checks in on his weight for the Homeboy Industries 5k Race in 10 days, he’s asking you listeners for advice to lose 10 pounds in 10 days!